BY PROF DR. SHASTRA DUTTA PANT
Even today each country consists of an intelligence agency asa government Department. However, the dealing of such agency is entirely different, the more immoral, the more terroristic and the more inhuman. The institution collects, analyzes and exploits valuable information. It is supposed to protect nation, people and property before any disaster happens. It plays a preventive and mitigation roles.
Intelligence agencies help country to cope with security matters and to protect the nation from likely security breach; the core purpose of spy agencies is collection of secret information to secure the country from any internal and external happenings which harm the stability of state economically, politically and socially.
The intelligence agencies also provide indirect security to tangible and intangible infrastructure of the country like nuclear program or any document containing sensitive information.
Personnel of any intelligence agency vowed to devote his lifeand work as secret agent for the state. Presently, there are as manyas representative of the mass media so are the agents of the intelligence. Among the top ten rated agencies in the present world by order are: CIA of USA, FSB of Russia, ISI of Pakistan, MI6 of UK, BND of Germany, ASIS of Australia, MSS of China, MOSAD of Israel, The Institute For Intelligence and Special Operation (DGSE) of France, and RAW of India. The exploration of the machination of RAW in
Nepal is major concern of the book. The RAW and the ISI are major competent in SAARC region, however, the others also have roles played in this region, mainly in Nepal. Nepal is situated as a pivotal and strategic place for them. The long range of Himalaya in between Nepal and China has made strategically important. The USA and China are political enemy, where as India and Pakistan are cultural and egoistic enemies. They have biasness as well. China-India and India-Pakistan fought wars and have enemy feelings existing. Therefore it will be better to highlight a brief note on them.
CIA is most prominent and familiar among other United States National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). CIA was founded in 1947.
This is considered as an independent and top agency in the whole world. The prime functions of it includes acquiring and analyzing information about foreigners, public relations for required data and underground operations at the direction of the president of United States. The agency headquarters is located in Langley, Virginia, a few miles west of Washington. CIA indeed is the largest secret service with the maximum reach. It is known to play a pivotal role in helping the US maintain its status as the world’s sole super power. CIA has been playing a central role in exchange of intelligence between countries to combat global terrorists.
Next to it is the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB) is the principal security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor agency to the USSR’s Committee of State Security (KGB). Founded in 1995, the agency is committed to the country for intelligence, counter- terrorism and security enhancement and defense security. It has at least 250 key personnel containing undercover agents, secret officers and foreign spies; itmainly fights the state crime, terror acts, drug smuggling and other internal security violence in the country.
Russia is one of the most important players in the world. The Glavnoye Razvedyvatel Noye Upravleniye (GRU) is the main intelligence, Russia’s largest secret Service, though, not as famous as the erstwhile KGB. The GRU is the backbone of Russian defensive intelligence service and concentrates on military espionage, especially away from Russian shores.
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the premier intelligence service of Pakistan, founded in1948. It has responsibilities of collecting information of critical national security and intelligence assessment for Government of Pakistan.
American Crime News declared Pakistan Inter ServicesIntelligence as world’s best and strongest intelligence agency, headquartereds in Shahrah-e-Soharwardi in Islamabad. ISI is most known and famous agency among three agencies working in
Pakistan; others are Intelligence Bureau (IB) and Military Intelligence (MI). ISI is known as command immense power in the Pakistani establishment, referred to principle brainpower organization of the country. Mainly it looks after the safety of nation.
ISI is also called a most notorious secret service agency in theworld. Officially the ISI is responsible for providing security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan; however it is known to be involved in fomenting trouble in India as RAW to
Pakistan. ISI is known to command immense power in the Pakistani establishment.
The Secret Intelligence Service of United Kingdom is known as MI6. It is formally known as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) was created just before the World War I for the possible reach ofthe activities of the Imperial German government. The Agency headquarters called SIS Building, has been situated in Vauxhall Cross, London.
The SIS popularly referred to as the Directorate of Military Intelligence Section 6 (MI6) is known as the secret frontline of Britain’s national security. MI6 has been closely involved in various conflicts in the 20th and 21st centuries but not officially acknowledged till 1994. The secret frontline of Britain`s national security has responsibilities to keep close eye on internal and external terror activities, organizations and countries which could harm national defense and state security.
The agency is tasked with gathering foreignintelligence from across the globe that could impact political and economic interest in the UK.
The Bundes Nachrichten Dienst (BND), Federal Intelligence Service of Germany was established prior to World War II to spy the enemies’ strategies and plans, headquartered in Pullach nearMunich. The Budget of BND is in billions as it used most moderntechnology to spy over its enemies for national security concerns,considered as one of the best and well-organized intelligence agencies in the world. However, the main objective of Agency is surveillance of sensitive issues referred to domestic and foreign intelligence.
The BND acts as an early warning system to alert the German government about threats to its interest. The main weapon in its armory is electronic surveillance of international communication.
BND agents are expressed across the world, with one estimate putting the number at 4000.
The Australian Secret Intelligent Service (ASIS) agency was founded in 1951 by the executive power of the Commonwealth, the mission of ASIS is to ‘Protect and promote Australia’s vital interests through the provision of unique foreign intelligence services as directed by Government’.
Intelligence agency of Australia is also lined up in top intelligence agencies of 2015 as it has wide hold on intelligence all over the world with its disperse personnel. There were manycontroversies in the ASIS; however, it has been resolved withconversion of it into a statuary body. ASIS is watch dogging which keeps close watch on developments across the world especially in Asia-Pacific region. Although Australia so far isolated from global terror, still ASIS works 24×7 to protect the country’s political and economic interests. Interestingly, the existence of ASIS, founded 1952 was a secret even from its own government over 20 years.
The Ministry of State Security (MSS) is the intelligence-security agency of the People’s Republic of China, the headquarters located near the Ministry of Public Security of the People’s Republic of China in Beijing. The agency has been responsible for counter-intelligence, political security and far-off intelligence. MSS is one of the most powerful and most active Chinese intelligence agencies. Its main objective is to keep track and neutralize enemies of the Communist Party of China is patterned after the former Soviet Union’s KGB political policy. The MSS aims to control the Chinese people to maintain the rule of the Communist Party. The modus operand, of MSS is unique. Its most successful spies are agents stationed throughout the world posing as ordinary citizen.
MSS is working parallel to the public security bureaus but hasnon-state security matters oftencollaborate both for the large extent. The Agency was established in 1937 which has been founded in 1949 by Communist Part of China, collected antithetical information for civil war in China.
MOSSAD (Institute for Intelligence and Special
Operation) is the national intelligence agency of Israel. Like CIA it has active agents spread across the world. The agents are involved in intelligence gathering,covert operations and protecting Jews and Jewish interests. It is most active organization in the country committed to collect intelligence involved in counter-terrorism and various covert operations. The director of agency is bound to report activities to the head of state, Prime Minister of Israel.
Contrary to others MOSSAD is considered as most powerfulagency in the world. Due to scarce widened resources, the undercover agents have been present in various countries to collect valuable information for the country. MOSSAD’s most notoriousunit is the Special Operations Division or Metsada, has involved inmany assassinations and secret operations worldwide. In 1960, MOSSAD discovered that Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in
Argentina. He was trafficked to Israel, tried and executed. MOSSAD had played a major role in Operation Entebbe, the counter terrors hostage-rescue mission carried out by Commandos of the Israel defense Force at Entebbe Airport in Uganda in 1976 to rescuekidnapped Israelis.
The General Directorate for External Security (DGSE), intelligence organ of France replaced the older Service de Documentation Exterior et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE) was formed in 1982. It was formed to gatherintelligence from foreign sources to assist it in military and strategicdecisions. It is not as famous as CIA, MOSSAD and DGSC. Though it claims to have prevented more than 15 terrorist attacks in Francesince 9/11 reports. The agency has a network around 5000 agents spread across France and the world. The DGSE have a huge force ofvoluntary correspondences or spies who are not on the rolls but play a vital role in gathering intelligence. Despite of its recent formation, the agency went responsible for the collection and interpretation of intelligence for sensitive concerns of France.
Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), India’s independent intelligence agency, was created in 1968. The agency head reports only to Prime Minister, not answerable to the Indian Parliament inany way as compared to other western intelligence agencies.
However, its prime purposes are to accumulate information regarding terror activities in the country which faced number of terror attacks in past years. RAW’s main focus is India’s neighbor Pakistan, engaged in many operations against Pakistan with physical secret basis in the country.
RAW, focuses its activities on India’s immediate neighborhood but with the changing profile of New Delhi’s geopolitical interests.
It has spread its wing to other regions across the world. Its chief directly reports to the PM, its operations do not come under the preview of parliament. The RAW is often termed as an effective instrument of India’s national power. It is believed that it has employed more than 18,000 field agents all over the world.
Among the active roles of the intelligence agencies as statedabove Nepal is the weakest one. In the existing world situation Nepal is in high risk. The whole concentration on this is the RAW of India.
RAW’s maverick intelligence sleuths always over Indian political actors to prove their credibility. RAW’s territorial ambitions and ugly designs have not died down.
(Excerpts from the book “Machination of RAW in Transitional Nepal” authored
by Prof. Dr. Shastra Dutta Pant.)